Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. Plato's beliefs on education, however, are difficult to discern because of the intricacies of the dialogue. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans. Guardians are created when the country begins to be too small for it’s inhabitants. Using the power of images, Socrates evokes an analogy of the obscure good and the familiar sun. Using the discussion of justice, Socrates formulates an active model of the educational process and guides his students through the levels of intelligibility and knowledge. By presenting them with numerous different points of view, he teaches them to look beyond convention and their long-held convictions, and be open to new, foreign ideas. Socrates never resolves the tension between the importance of nature and education for the development of philosopher-kings, which makes it difficult to understand which is most important. Tales must be strictly censored because young children are malleable and absorb all to which they are exposed. Plato believed that these false tales that talked about the faults of Gods and heroes would mold children. Politeia; Latin: De Republica) is a Socratic dialogue, authored by Plato around 375 BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man. Plato considered bravery to be one of the most important attributes a guardian should possess. . Outside these ages, intercourse is to … Radically, Socrates says that anything in youth "assimilates itself to the model whose stamp anyone wishes to give to it" (377b). Plato felt that literature is very influential to individuals. He does not try to tell Glaucon and Adeimantus what to think, as though he were putting "sight into blind eyes," but instead helps them turn around and focus on what is important and true. Gods must never be shown as unjust for fear that children will think it acceptable and honorable to do injustice. After all, shadows (or noble lies) capture part of the truth, whether it is physical or moral, and can be used to educate people about what lies beyond the cave, either outside the city's laws or in life after death. Plato believed that literature must contain stories of truth and the divine nature of humans, which is good. The warriors must obey the rulers. Socrates was serious when he said that poetry has the power to touch the soul, which is why he ends his argument with Socratic poetry--the myth of Er. The first part of their education would be on literature. I chose this topic because it is of interest to me since I am going to work in the field of education. The country must then take land from neighboring countries in order to be able to accommodate all of the citizens. For the Greeks and Plato, excellence is virtue. After convincing Glaucon that escaping the cave and becoming a philosopher is advantageous, Socrates returns to more practical political matters. Therefore, the correct style of narrative for both guardians and poets is mostly non-imitative, but allows for some imitation of good men (396d). The aim of education, according to Plato, is the welfare of both the individual and the society. A summary of Part X (Section5) in Plato's The Republic. But when it fixes itself on that which is mixed with darkness, on coming into being and passing away, it opines and is dimmed, changing opinions up and down and seems at such times not to possess intelligence (508d). Given the dramatic context of the dialogue (that Socrates is educating the interlocutors), I would assume that he believes more in the importance of education rather than that of nature. In order for there to be a just state, there must be a balance between the different types of people, namely; reason dominated, spirit dominated and appetite dominated people. Thus, he makes the guardians' revised education implausibly lengthy (it does not culminate until the age of fifty at which point most people are close to life's end) and ends the discussion with the idea that only children under the age of ten will be allowed in the city with the philosopher-kings (541a). He says. If a person is able to imitate different characters then he might be able to take on the characteristics of the character. Guardians would also be needed to maintain internal order between the citizens. The omission of wisdom, along with the implication that the guardians should accept blindly whatever they are told and to be wholly molded by the tales, suggest again that guardians are not intended to be wise and philosophical. Since the philosopher-kings are still to be warriors, their education must still be useful for warlike men. Education in music for the soul and gymnastics for the body, Socrates says, is the way to shape the guardians' character correctly and thereby prevent them from terrorizing the citizens. First he would see shadows, then reflections in water, then things themselves, then the night's sky, and finally, the sun--which is an image of the good and what is (516b). Instead, education serves to identify those who are capable of philosophizing and helps to strengthen the characters of those who are capable. Quality Education paper writing help. Like the well-educated guardian, a good judge will be "a late learner of what injustice is" (409b). Recognizing that most men and women wouldn’t be satisfied The importance of knowing what is stands out in sharp contrast to the earlier unfounded opinions of the guardians. The first part of education focused on the content of literature so the second part must focus on the form. Perhaps he emphasizes the importance of a certain nature to add an aura of prestige to education. He moves from the sun image to that of the divided line, and then develops the analogy of the cave to represent the nature of education. Despite slightly relinquishing control, Socrates still subtly guides Glaucon and Adeimantus toward the truth by making the luxurious city and its guardians' education ludicrous. Furthermore, it is insufficient to merely have opinions about the good. . Ideal Characteristics of Plato's Guardians 1393 Words | 6 Pages. Plato feels that a poet should not be able to tell a story in dramatic form. Also, because the dialogue is meant to be a defense of philosophy and an apology of Socrates, the education of real philosophers seems more in tune with the theme of the book than the education of "noble-puppy" guardians. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of The Republic and what it means. Plato’s view on a God who does not change form is also something I now agree on. The most explicit account of education arises after Glaucon questions the moderate and plain lifestyle required in Socrates' just city "of speech" (369a). Literature with topics such as Gods against Gods and misdeeds were untruthful. Caught up in the fun of imagining the ideal city, Glaucon cannot fathom that it would be as austere as Socrates suggests and desires that it be more luxurious. Children must be told that the gods are not the cause of all things, only those which are good and just (380c). Remember that Socrates had to be persuaded to stay in the Piraeus and talk with Adeimantus and Polemarchus (327-328). He shows Glaucon what would happen if a prisoner was unchained and allowed to leave the cave and see reality. If children only learn about what is good then they will be able to find the divine nature in themselves. Socrates claims, "A young thing can't judge what is hidden sense and what is not; but what he takes into his opinions at that age has a tendency to become hard to eradicate and unchangeable" (378d). The play which he advocates, however, is not without responsibility. The primary education the Guardians is started after they have been chosen. Socrates insists that recipients of an education in mathematics and dialectics must have a suitable nature. Plato regards education as a means to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. Music is used to accompany a poem. They need to be gentle when they are dealing with the citizens of the state. This means that the Guardian can distinguish the good from the ugly. Gymnastics is mainly responsible for preventing illness and the need for medicine in the city. Socrates makes the discussion of justice interesting by playing "make believe" with Glaucon and Adeimantus. Similar to the content and style of speeches, Socrates allows only moderate and austere melodies. Not only does Socrates lead the interlocutors through the educational process, but Plato, by using a dialogue form for his treatise, allows us, the readers, to be educated along with Glaucon and Adeimantus. Plato felt that one was put into a social group by their own development of their rational intellects. Most importantly, Socrates insists that rhythm must follow speech, not the other way around. From what Socrates says here, it seems as if the natures with which children are born matter less than their education; anyone can be a philosopher with the right training.1 Also, unlike the first education, the purpose of the philosopher-kings' education is to eventually teach children how to distinguish right from wrong by showing them the whole truth. For the most part, each one spends his time in philosophy, but when his turn comes, he drudges in politics and rules for the city's sake, not as though he were doing a thing that is fine, but one that is necessary. The primary object of education, Plato says, is to turn the eye, which the soul already possesses, to the light. The Guardian - Back to home. and find homework help for other Plato's Republic questions at eNotes When it fixes itself on that which is illumined by truth and that which is, it intellects, knows, and appears to possess intelligence. This would tie in with literature because stories are conveyed. The third part of education would be music. Education Essay website will help you with writing your Education essays, research papers, term papers and dissertations on Education topics. And, lifting up the brilliant beams of their souls, they must be compelled to look toward that which provides light for everything. Socrates says. The good is beyond perceived reality and is hard to see, but once the good is understood, it is clear that it "is the cause of all that is right and fair in everything," and must be possessed and understood by prudent rulers (517c). If certain natures are necessary for education, then all those who are educated are deemed superior in both nature and education. Instead of giving examples of appropriate tales, Socrates attacks the great poets, Hesiod and Homer, for creating inappropriate tales. With the ever-present danger of tyranny accompanying military rule, efforts must be made to curb the guardians' natural tendency to lord over the citizens. Plato View of Education. Although Socrates found it necessary to drag Glaucon out of the cave and into the light using images, Socrates still prefers that his students do not simply accept the truth, but come to it on their own. The philosopher's descent into the cave hearkens back the first line of the book, "I went down to the Piraeus yesterday with Glaucon" (327a). Philosopher king, idea according to which the best form of government is that in which philosophers rule.The ideal of a philosopher king was born in Plato’s dialogue Republic as part of the vision of a just city. Finally, Glaucon seems to be able to distinguish between what is true and false for himself. Of course, this is the way mathematics is studied in most universities today. Socrates, however, still recognizes the danger of the full truth. Most existing stories, Socrates claims, send inappropriate messages and must be outlawed. The first account of education can be read in light of this ideal. Glaucon and Adeimantus are participants in Plato’s dialogues. (40) In Plato's ideal society, mothers are to be between 20 and 40, fathers between 25 and 55. He says that philosopher-kings must have a certain nature, but then says the capacity to see the good and be educated is in all. Certain rhythms and modes would convey a specific mood or feeling. As the sun allows our eyes to use their existing capacity to see, the good allows our existing intellect to know. The man who makes the finest mixture of gymnastic with music and brings them to his soul in the most proper measure is the one of whom we would most correctly say that he is the most perfectly musical and well harmonized (412a). I now feel that censorship is sometimes needed after reading Plato’s views on censorship. Glaucon wants this illusive, erotic knowledge that Socrates dangles before him, but just as his interest is sparked, Socrates tells him it is too complicated, which arouses Glaucon even more (506e). Like excessive displays of grief, excessive displays of happiness threaten the stoic attitude that is desirable in guardians. The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. According to Plato, individual justice can be obtained when each individual develops his or her ability to the fullest. Literature consists of stories being told that are actual events that took place or fictitious ones. He determines that mimetic poetry is dangerous because it encourages people to imitate bad as well as good behavior and supports the violation of the one man-one job principle (395c). This is why poets who use this form will not be allowed to tell their tales to the Guardians. Moreover, children are expected to accept whatever they are told with little free-thought. The Guardians will have to be both fierce and gentle. This reminds me of the lecture in class about the Evil Genius. Socrates' sharing in the educational experience is an effective pedagogical method that benefits both the student and the teacher. Dramatic form is when a poet tells a story by acting out different characters in a story. The topic of education first arises in the book when Glaucon opposes the plain lifestyle required in Socrates' city. Plato’s education of music, gymnastics, mathematics and dialectics in the Republic helps to ensure that these three components of the soul are in harmony with each other. Vari Hall, Santa Clara University500 El Camino RealSanta Clara, CA 95053408-554-5319, Miller Center for Social Entrepreneurship. Plato feels that stories that would make the Guardians become god-fearing should be eliminated because a Guardian should not fear God. Only modes that express traits a guardian should hold will be left uncensored. Although never exposed to injustice personally, he will recognize injustice by its foreignness. Even though Socrates advocates escaping the cave and learning what is through philosophy, he never dismisses the importance of convention. Socrates skillfully explains until Glaucon grasps the concept and is able to make an account of it for himself. Interestingly, these bad messages are the same as Glaucon's and Adeimantus' arguments against the usefulness of justice. When they are thirty-five, those well-trained in dialectics will be required to go back into the cave to hold offices, and testing will continue. By preparing Glaucon with the sun analogy and telling him of the extreme power of the good, Socrates hooks him completely. As of now I am still studying other religions. Play must have serious intentions; poetry must only imitate what is good, pointing beyond the petty troubles of men to the eternal pursuit of justice and philosophy, and children must not be allowed to play with dialectics before they are able to do so responsibly for fear they will be corrupted and become lawless (538). Whereas Glaucon accepted the first account of education because he himself sparked the discussion of the luxurious city, he is now perplexed by the image of the cave. First, turns Glaucon onto the good by introducing it in a mysterious, attractive way. Modes that express bravery, endurance, peacefulness, and success would be considered meaningful. The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. 3 The Plato’s suggestion for censorship of art and literature is extremely critical Instead, they must escape the cave, be educated in the good through philosophy (521c), and then return to the cave to rule and enlighten others (519d). Socrates now acknowledges that the nature necessary in philosopher-kings is rare. Simply by aiming for true knowledge, this education is more philosophical and Socratic than the first. Plato was a Greek philosopher who lived from 427 to 347 B.C. Despite Socrates' use of "reverse psychology" to make Glaucon realize the truth on his own terms, Glaucon does not find the philosopher's life ideal, so Socrates switches tactics. They must be fierce in order to go to war or ward off invasion. The implication that children can be shaped completely by education fits with the earlier suggestion that guardians are not meant to have a particular moral nature before their education. Socrates says of calculation, "It leads the soul powerfully upward and compels it to discuss numbers themselves" (525d). The Guardians are picked even before they can acquire language so that they can easily be molded into the perfect warriors. Socrates next reveals why philosophical education is often resisted and how educational enlightenment is progressive. Instead, knowledge of "the good" must be absolute; Socrates says, "When it comes to good things, no one is satisfied with what is opined to be so but each seeks the things that are" (505d). Plato’s feelings on primary education would make a just Guardian and would truly bring out his divine nature. Socrates' way of explaining the good is characteristic of his pedagogical method. The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. Those who resolutely hold onto the convictions instilled in them by education will be chosen as guardians and those who rebel against the city's ideology will be rejected (413d-414a). Glaucon says, "Apollo, what a demonic excessâ¦don't leave even the slightest thing aside" (509c). Next, he teaches about thought through his discussion of the philosopher-kings' education and dialectics. This may not be good for the Guardians because they may take on some negative characteristics. By asserting that the highest virtues are acquired through education and are a matter of refined taste, Socrates combats Glaucon's love for base pleasures. Melodies imitating the sounds and accents of men courageous in the face of danger and those suitable to peaceful men are allowed, but modes suiting laments or revelries are forbidden (399b). Hesiod. Socrates' rambling teaching style makes sense in light of his idea that students should come to the truth on their own rather than by force (536e). The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to … Thus, potential philosopher-kings must receive a new form of education that will identify, test, and refine their philosophical natures. Consequently, it was their occupation to enact the decisions made by the ruling class. He says, "Next, then, make an image of our nature in its education and want of education" (514a). Changes sometimes have to be made to literature and music in order to produce a noble warrior. Rhythm and mode would now have to be censored just as the poem itself had to. The topic I am going to discuss is the topic of Education. Those who excel in their studies, war, and other duties will be chosen at age thirty to be tested in dialectics to determine "who is able to release himself from the eyes and the rest of sense and go to what which is in itself and accompanies truth" (437d). Before, education consisted of telling false tales to children so that they would absorb the material and have correct opinions. I will discuss the guardians as one section since the Rulers are picked after the primary education of the Guardians is completed. Since God is perfection, then he would not need to take on other forms. Education in music and gymnastics will be compulsory for youths, and their progress and adaptability will be watched and tested throughout their development. Suitable tales must glorify and encourage moderation; they must display obedience to superiors and temperance in drinking, eating, sex (389e), and love of money and possessions (390e). Like the divided line, the dialogue has different meanings and purposes on different levels, making it dangerous to believe everything Socrates says. Socrates says, "Now, the true city is in my opinion the one we just described-a healthy city, as it were. Hesiod was a famous Greek poet. Plato felt that most tales were unsatisfactory because of their content and must be supervised. At first, he would be pained and disoriented by the foreign sights. Plato view of education is for the good of the individual and for the safety of the state. Philosophers cannot stay in the light forever and the cave cannot be eliminated, or else lawlessness would prevail and the city would be destroyed. Instead of being told existing tales such as those by Homer and Hesiod, children must be told speeches about real justice, whatever it may be (392c). Although education is not meant to simply bolster convention as in the first account of education, education is also not meant to undermine convention. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to excel. Finally, Socrates arrives at knowledge of what is. As a compromise, Socrates agrees to tell Glaucon of something similar to the good but less complicated (507a). Ideal Characteristics of Plato’s Guardians The characterisitics of the ideal guardian is summarized in those words by Socrates in the second book of the Republic : “[H]e who is to be a really good and noble guardian of the State will require to unite in himself philosophy and spirit and swiftness and strength. "The same education which makes a man a good guardian will make a woman a good guardian; for their original nature is the same." Every component of speech must follow the disposition of a good soul; "Good speech, good harmony, good grace, and good rhythm accompany good disposition" (400e). Stories of heroes that are to be told should only consist of heroes who hold the same values and characteristics, which the Guardians should have. Although Socrates says potential guardians must have a certain disposition, the impressionability of the ideal nature suggests that they must only be bodily suited to the physical aspects of the job since they will be instilled with the other necessary qualities through education. Furthermore, gods cannot be said to punish (unless it is for the punished person's benefit), change shape/form, or lie. Following his discussion of medicine, Socrates discusses the appropriate character of judges. While the dramatic context of the dialogue makes facets of the Republic difficult to grasp, in the case of education, it also provides the key to locating and understanding Socrates' true vision of education. Quick, fiery natures suited to music are usually too unstable for courage in the face of war, and trustworthy, brave natures that excel in war are often slow intellectually (503c-d). .” If a God is able to take on another form then it could only be for the worse. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through t… If the appetitive component is too strong, we would have an unhealthy soul with too much greed and lust. When told that his experience in the cave was not entirely real, he would rebel--and not without reason (515d). They are chosen from among the ranks of the auxiliaries, and are also known as philosopher-kings. Plato also exploits the power of mimetic poetry by using Socrates and the participants as his mouthpieces. Additionally, tales cannot include displays of laughter (389a). If he tried to look at his new surroundings and the sun directly after leaving the dark cave, he would be blinded and would want to return to the comfort of his familiar past surroundings (515e). But once he focuses on what is, he will be happier than ever before and will never want to return to the cave (516e-c). Hades should be praised so that the warriors will not fear death; children should grow up fearing slavery more than death (386c). Unable to distinguish between good and bad and, therefore, garner examples of how not to behave from bad tales, children will only use bad examples to justify their own bad behavior (391e). The new importance of truth and what is also contrasts with the first account's use of lies in educating the guardians. The final part of education would be the physical training of the warrior. Glaucon easily grasps the idea behind the analogy and is immediately intrigued by the image, saying "It's a strange image and strange prisoners you're telling of" (515a). The Greek word for number is arithmos, and it’s the root of our word arithmetic. No longer is Glaucon averse to the austere lifestyle of the guardians, because now the guardians are possessors of the most illustrious power. The tales deemed unfit for a child to hear would be discarded. Remarkably, in the guardian's education, no one, not even a judge, was permitted exposure to the truth at this young an age. (Republic 454d) Thus, Plato maintained that prospective guardians, both male and female, should receive the same education and be assigned to the same vital functions within the society. The heroes told in stories should be brave, unafraid of death, and are not dependent on others. Separating gods from men prevents poetic accounts of the gods from being used as a model for human behavior. ... had been running their “inclusive music education programme” Roadworks, using genres such as drill to engage young people in … The study of complex, elusive concepts pushes one to study what is permanent and perfect. Thus, Socrates revises the prior education by introducing the study of numbers/calculations, geometry, and cubes. The modes that express sorrow, drunkenness, effeminacy, and inactivity would have to be discarded. Physical training is an important aspect because an educated Guardian would be of no use if he were unable to protect and serve. Tales cannot depict fighting among the gods and, further, children must actively be told that citizens have never been angry with one another (378c). Women of the guardian class are indeed to be given the same education as men, but they will become the “companions and colleagues” of their guardian husbands. As an adult you should feel free to read what you want since you have already been shaped. The higher section is the Philosophic Rulers and the lower section is the warriors. The grown up people of guardian class will receive the education of science and philosophy. Socrates identifies this subject by describing it as the lowly business of distinguishing the one, the two, and the three—the number. I… He lets them be founders, thereby allowing them a vested interest in the discussion. Furthermore, he exploits the power of playful images and poetry to convey his ideas. He says that good guardians must not be prisoners nor can they be philosophers who selfishly stay outside of the cave. There are two sections of Guardians. His guiding principle is that, “Nothing must be admitted in education which does not conduce to the promotion of virtue. The wisest would be the philosopher-Kings, then workers, then guardians. This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c). When a man tries by discussion--by means of argument without the use of any of the sense--to attain to each thing itself that which is and doesn't give up before he grasps by intellection itself that which is good itself, he comes to the very end of the intelligible realm just as that other man was then at the end of the visible (532b). In accordance with the progressive, playful, philosophical education suggested by the cave analogy and the philosopher-kings' education, Socrates uses numerous varying and often conflicting ideas and images (among which is the first account of education) to gradually guide his pupils toward a personal realization of knowledge and philosophy.