There are only three actually different diminished 4-note 7th chords so that gives you absolutely all 12 chromatic notes. Keys C Eb F# A - you should know that by now, the notes of the first row. Just so long as you do not run out of notes for it. In either the C System or the B System  each vertical row gives you a diminished 7th chords which in three rows from covers all possible notes. Folk Russian Button Accordion, 3 Row Bayan Belarus, made in USSR New Straps 1408. Playing Chromatic Accordion Thursday, October 29, 2020. The following short video shows a tune which includes mostly first inversion major arpeggio shapes at the beginning of most of the lines of music. The rows are made up the same on either C system or B system, after all they are simply going through a continuous scale of diminsihed 7ths. When added to a piano keyboard it could be either, or even an extension of the single notes of stradellabass known as quint free bass. There can be 3 to 5 rows of vertical treble buttons. £800.00. $100.00. Chromatic accordion has vertical rows of buttons each representing a different diminished 7th chord. On the right and left hand sides of the diagram there may be more buttons working exactly the same way depending on the size of the accordion. Now for something completely different. Chromatic accordions still have the stradella bass system that you are used to. I think it may be a healthier use of the finger than the piano keyboard and one of the reasons I took it up was as insurance against finger deterioration. In the minor chord root position remember a minor chord consists of a minor 3rd with a big fat major 3rd sitting incosiderately on top of it! 4078 - Silver Unico Camille Parys Bruxelles B System Chromatic Button Accordion LMMH 87 120 Belgian Bass. In reality, a chromatic accordion plays the same note on either a push and pull, just like a piano accordion. A chromatic button accordion is a type of button accordion where the right side keyboard has rows of buttons arranged chromatically. $649.00. I know there are some people who have to see it all at once, so here it is, but laid out so you do not have to look at it all at once. Folk Chromatic Button Accordion, Bayan 100 bass, made in Russia, incl. $3,880.00 $2,185.00. If you choose to look at a note from the outside row and select notes out from it in a V formation, the beginning of the V will be tones moving back down in a C system and the other stroke of the V will give you semitones going upwards. [4] There are several conflicting claims of the invention of the first chromatic button accordion. It would also be advisable by realising the interval you are travelling in to be able to "leak" onto extra notes in other rows to smooth out the fingering and thus the playing. This is not necessary as you can start on any button for getting different scales. It is easy to remember what is in each row  because each row is a diminished 7th chord or arpeggio. Maximum quantity exceeded. The Chromatic Accordion can play in any key, just like a piano accordion, theoretically with the same fingering and sequence of buttons whatever key you are in. Also 3rd inversion if including the 7th. Hohner Bravo III 72 3-Voice Chromatic Accordion w/ Gig Bag, Red. Included among chromatic button accordions are the Russian bayan and Schrammel accordion. You can feel the chord shapes in the grasp of your fingers in this way. or Best Offer. Adjustments become necessary only when you run out of button rows to go on to. When you are playing from the third row you might think "Oh wow! C $370.23. A 120 bass chromatic can have many more than the comparable piano accordion. ACCORDIOLA CHROMATIC ACCORDION 120 BASS C SYSTEM . With the largest selection of new and used accordions, we have the perfect accordion for you, or design your very own customized accordion! Included among chromatic button accordions are the Russian bayan and Schrammel accordion. From the second row to find Bb major you either skip upwards or add D an F in a rather uncomfortable twisting fingers shape. The Atzarin accordion is a new instrument with a fully chromatic, bisonoric and neutral treble keyboard, and a standard Stradella bass/chord system on the left side (see full details here). PRODUCT. This is however over simplification and you will probably find some keys easier to play in than others. Despite the markings on the keyboard this instrument was set to C system. Probably the best player in the US is a French guy named Julien Labro. In a 5 row chromatic, two additional rows repeat the first 2 rows to facilitate options in fingering. Brand NEW Russian Chromatic Button Accordion Bayan for Children or Beginner Tula Bn 42 3 ROW 60 Bass Welcome to musical workshop "Harmony" Our licensed musical workshop "Harmony" is an official dealer of the factory «Tulskaya Garmon». [5] Many early chromatic button accordions were similar in design to the schrammel accordion. Button Accordions Used. That B system will only have one row with C in it! You cannot always look of course, nor should you, so it is customary to mark for touch all the Cs  and all the Fs on the chromatic accordion. The C System is called so because the note C is found in the outside row. $58.80 shipping. Excalibur 96 Bass Chromatic Button Accordion Akordeon Werks(AW) Blue Polish C System. To practice it start withg the root position, then work upwartds to 1st inversion, 2nd inversion. With B system B is in the outer row and the diagonal rows which represent semitone or full tone moves are in the opposite direction.The first three outside rows because each contains a different diminished 7th series give you all the notes. The modern chromatic button accordion, featuring the Stradella bass system, was patented in 1897 by Paolo Soprani, with the assistance of Mattia Beraldi and Raimondo Piatanesi. $3,999.00. I have come across adverts for chromatic accordions (so far as I can tell) describing them as C C# D or B C C# which probably better describes the effect of reading the notes across the keyboard. This website uses cookies to improve functionality. Russian Chromatic Button Accordion Tenor, Bayan 100 Bass, New Straps, Case, 1467, Classic Musical Instrument, Excellent sound! Its production and sale by Paolo Soprani helped globally spread and standardize the chromatic button accordion.[5]. SPECIAL REMINDER IF YOU RUN OUT OF ROWS - APPLIES TO ALL THESE EXAMPLES, THIS WILL HAPPEN SOMETIMES BUT ALWAYS TO THREE ROW PLAYERS STARTING FROM 2ND OR 3RD ROW, To GO UP TO an imaginary 6th row that is not there GO BACK TWO ROWS towards the outside of the accordion to find the note you want, To GO UP TO an imaginary 7th row GO BACK JUST ONE ROW, SIMILARLY FOR FINDING AN INTERVAL THAT YOU KNOW GOING FURTHER TO OUTSIDE WHEN YOU ARE ALREADY ON THE FIRST ROW, For one row back (row minus 1) go two rows forward. 6107 - Brown Capriole Bayan Chromatic Button Accordion B … For two rows back (row minus 2) go one row forward. These instruments have largely replaced the Piano Accordion in many countries. 26 bids. Excalibur 96 Bass Chromatic Button Accordion Akordeon Werks(AW) Blue Polish C System. But that is just my opinion of course. So you would only have the duplicated C row to remember as an extra. Shop Emilio Accordions for all your accordion needs. 15-a3690, hohner mattia iv button chromatic accordion, c-system, 120 bass, with chin registers, lmmh reeds, gun black/pearl buttons SKU: 15-A3690 $ 22,995.00 inc. GST View Product Was: C $389.72. In the C system there is only one B row and in the B system only one C row. 3 Bayan Pathway to Accordion D Major. I think wrist over the fingers for tones and wrist under for semitones might work.You can use the 4th and 5th rows to use the same moves while playing a tune in a different key or use them where it is convenient to carry on with notes in that direction for a nicer fingeringI have not picked up my chromatic accordion for six months or more but some of the basics stay in your hands. The easiest way to show the basic principle though you will more often use a 3 or 4 row version explained later. Email me ideally with a copy of the section that I have not made clear for you, An Introduction To Playing Chromatic (Button) Accordion, In the C system there is only one B row and in the B system only one C row, Find more music stuff from the website founder on Facebook. One gives you "scales" of just tones and the other diagonal gives you a run of only semitones. [notes 1] On the other hand, some fingering positions require twisting of the wrist and the aspect of alternative fingering patterns may stunt one in sessions of difficult sight reading.[2]. Chromatic button Accordions (called Bayans in the Russian states), are hardly known in the United States, but they’re very popular in both Eastern and Western Europe, and have been for over 100 years! PLAY IT OR DISPLAY IT! £30.00 postage. It will be vertically between the other two main chords, which incidentally are the only two major chords beside the key chord that belong in that key. Minimum purchase amount of 0 is required. They have single treble notes on the left and typically have a Stradella bass (see piano accordions) on the right. Something you do not understand on this site? This is very easy to remember particularly for the minor 7th since you have two buttons in each adjoining row. A C system instrument will have equal numbers of black and white buttons on the outside, alternately 2 white and 2 black whereas a B system will have the row with 3 white and then 1 black there. Notice that from minor 3rd upwards each is a movement one further away along the semitone axis. An Introduction To Playing Chromatic (Button) Accordion The Chromatic Accordion can play in any key, just like a piano accordion, theoretically with the same fingering and sequence of buttons whatever key you are in. And some of the moves are a little awkward which might make using at least one additional row a good idea. Minimum purchase amount of 0 items is Required. Bear in mind you can also find the same intervals by jumping to a different row, i.e. PRODUCT. Due to its excellent quality, Klingenthal has become famous in the whole world as a center of accordion production. $79.00 shipping. Ideal for the smallest beginners. The bass-side keyboard is usually the Stradella system or one of the various free-bass systems. The chromatic button accordion is a mystery to many piano accordionists. (Geologists might think in terms of movement of tectonic plates) So the diagonal direction for semitone movement on B system is like the tone diagonal on the C system, and vice versa. And of course if you wanted a note in a row two rows below that was not there it will be very handily placed in the next row above. The uniform layout allows for uniform fingering and making of chords; meanwhile, the chromatic button layout also allows for alternative fingerings. Ending Nov 29 at 7:43AM PST 11h 35m. Delicia Button/Chromatic Accordions: Delicia Diatonic Accordions: The accordion and harmonicas manufacturing in Horovice maintains more than 70 year tradition. The bass-side keyboard is usually the Stradella system or one of the various free-bass systems. The question should perhaps rather be: which type of instrument is best for a certain individual. The bass-side keyboard is usually the Stradella system or one of the various free-bass systems.Included among chromatic button accordions are the Russian bayan and Schrammel accordion.There can be 3 to 5 rows of vertical treble buttons. HOWEVER - WHEN YOU RUN OUT OF ROWS, EITHER ON THE ACCORDION OR WITHIN YOUR AREA OF COMFORT, If you wish there were an extra row above for your next row you will find an alternative version TWO ROWS BELOW, IF you are after a note that would be two rows above your substitute will be ONE ROW BELOW, If you wish you had a note in a row ONE NOTE BELOW there is another TWO NOTES ABOVE. PRODUCT. The third row is the only one to contain B D F# A and the first and second rows have C D#/Eb F# A and C#/Db E G Bb/A#As the diminished 7th is a series of minor 3rds these will be between the first and second notes and in the same row in a minor chord which has the minor 3rd underneath or on the 2nd and 3rd notes up a row in a major chord.In a normal 7th chord you have three buttons together on the upper row in a minor 7th two of each paired together.It takes some working out how to describe which is which of the diagonal movements for moving a while tone eg C to D or a semitone like C to Db. Probably because of the effort of thinking about them rather than any particular comparative finger difficulty. The piano accordion offers a chromatic keyboard in standard piano layout for the right hand with anywhere from 48 to 120 bass and chord buttons for the left, generally in what's known as the “Stradella” or standard bass system. $5,499.00. Like piano accordions, they play the same note on the push and pull of the bellows. Ricardo Llanos and Inaki Alberdi, "Accordion for Composers" (Spanish publication: 2002), 2-5). The buttons being to some extent alongside one another means more notes can be fitted into a smaller accordion. Only three diminished 7th chords are possible if you recall. You will notice many chromatic players appear not to use the thumb and often deliberately hold it tight against the edge of the keyboard so they cannot use it. Weltmeister Corina III Button Accordion - GCF - Green Marble Weltmeister, the oldest Accordion and Diatonic Accordion Factory of the World since 1852: the brand made in Klingenthal and honored throughout the world. We are concentrating on the semitone diagonal row here, but bear in mind these are not the only possibilities. Hopefully these diagrams will help you remember them. It would be insulting of me to assume otherwise! A 72 bass or a 96 bass can have the same number of right hand notes as a 120 bass piano accordion. By the way if you have a C system chromatic, the free bass will normally be also C system and B free bass with B system chromatic. A chromatic button accordion is a type of button accordion where the melody-side keyboard consists of rows of buttons arranged chromatically. Chromatic Accordions Chromatic All Chromatic Accordions New ... Accordion bags Accordion Cases Accordion Stands Accordion Back Straps Accordion Shoulder Straps ... Button Accordions Used. He mentioned to me once that he was open to doing skype lessons. On the chromatic it is very easy to play perfectly in two different keys treble and bass if you forget what note you started your tune on! This allows for a greater range of notes, with the treble keyboard holding approximately 4+ octaves. You may notice that your left and right hand are mirror images of each other! Famous industrialist and merchant Josef Kebrdle was founder of this manufacturing. 3994 - Blue Sparkle Maugein French C System Chromatic Button Accordion MM 64 80. I am playing a B system now". If you are continuing to the next tone or semitone for example. Experience the freedom of a free-bass button accordion with the smallest of the series. And makes sense from the position of diatonic accordion players. My detailed explanation of this instrument is designed for anyone who is thinking of starting to play it. I did this mainly to add to the chromatic page of accordionwise.com An attempt to explain the basic moves of chromatic button accordion C system which is the system where c is in the outer row of the treble keyboard. The 4th row is the same series as the 1st and the 5th like the 2nd. For people who only have 3 row chromatic C systems or have a phobia about moving onto the 4th and 5th rows here are major scale note patterns for using the first 3 rows only. The free bass is usually specified as C chromatic for the bottom three or four rows of the bass system and the same tune can be played with the left hand as on the equivalent chromatic right hand. This gives you a better feel for what is going on and makes most movements, especially chord and arpeggio based moves, easier. In Accordion Chromatic Button you can simulate various accordions of major brands worldwide through a simple change of switches, like a real accordion! A chromatic treble keyboard has a logical and smart design – the buttons/notes are There are also some rarer national variations with the C row in a C system starting in the third row but this is fairly rare. B sytem works in the opposite direction with the note containing B in the outside first row. The SUBDOMINANT, is the note or chord immediiately BELOW the KEYNOTE. Throughout the former Yugoslavia a 6-row chromatic button layout is used based on the B system. You can find this chord by playing this anywhere on the treble chromatic keyboard, anywhere on any row. Hence choose a C and the left hand part of the V will be C Bb Ab Gb/F# E, The Remaining right hand upward stroke of the V will be C C# D Eb E. SUPERTIP: Watch this happen by following the sequence of white and black buttons in the two diagonals from the fourth white button, approximately centre of lowest row shown above. BORSINI CHROMATIC ACCORDION 96 BASS (STRADELLA) C SYSTEM COMPACT MOD MUSETTE . You can for example also find a Major 3rd on alternate buttons of the opposing diagonal row, containing the full tone distances. SOUNDS COMPLICATED BUT IT CAN BE SUMMED UP BY JUST SAYING SUBSTITUTE TWO FOR THREE OR THREE FOR TWO, Start note to Augmented 4th on to perfect 5th opening notes of Maria West Side Story, Including the Secret Way, Hidden in Plain Sight. Unlike the folk style button accordions on chromatic you have enough buttons for every note and do not have to worry about them varying with bellows direction. These are the diagonal rows which supply the semitone shifts. Notice that not only is the row containing B D G Ab/G# on the outside and there is room to repeat it but there is no room for an extra C Eb F# A row within the 5 rows. I think you will be able to work out how it would feel using the top three rows by adjusting your field of view on this diagram! It can make very easy thumb crossing multi octave arpeggios on the outside row, but you need to choose your keys wisely or choose a different system altogether. The three different rows give you all 12 different notes of the scale therefore as below. $3,999.00. THE DOMINANT being the note or chord ABOVE the key chord. 5 out of 5 stars (149) 149 reviews $ 459.00 FREE shipping Only 1 available and it's in 2 people's carts. I agree with the assertion made by others on this forum that the keyboard layout of the CBA is closely linked to the way musette tunes are phrased. The B system although it has the same notes in the various rows and even in the same order as the C system works differently as to how they are aligned with each other. This system also means that diagonal movements in one direction take you in semitone steps and in the other diagonal full tone steps. With C system from the outside first row through to the inside 5th row you have in this order. As the Stradella bass system would not be invented until later, these accordions often employed systems that would be considered unusual on a modern chromatic accordion, such as bisonoric bass buttons. This document tries to help those who are new to the Again try practising the different inversions to get used to finding the chord anywhere. It also makes it easy to prepare where you are going in advance better, having your fingers covering the notes you are playing before you actually need to use them. NOTICE THAT NO SPECIFIC SCALES ARE QUOTED. Black Diamond Chromatic Button Accordions are currently available only in our Standard Range. If you watch expert musicians you will notice their hands appear to hardly move, because they are already where they will need to be. Maximum quantity exceeded. And of course various types of movements are forced when you run out of rows to go into at the outside and inside edges of the accordion button keyboard. I still think the chromatic button accordion is a fascinating instrument, and if you're serious about playing musette, you should think about investing in one. Chromatic accordions are not to be confused with diatonic accordions, such as melodeons and more types which are designed to play inside particular specified keys rather than cover any possible key modulations. NB The C system Free Bass works exactly the same across 4 rows on a convertor system, but in order that the fingering is the same the notes are in the opposite direction. [3][6] Early chromatic button accordions were less popular than their diatonic counterpoints and unstandardized. The main chords in turn provide this mini-tune jsut from major arpeggios. C $325.84 shipping. PRODUCT. $1,499.00. Industrial beginnings date back to 1920. You will get smoother moves using only the fingers it is true, because the thumb works in a different way than the fingers, waving around instead of coming straight down. Further info on the diagram, white outlined buttons are a sample of how you can move in full tones, while turquoise outlined buttons show the chromatic (semitone) movement. On the way down I play conventionally since the thumb is already there! There are 50 products. The first chromatic button accordion may have been constructed as early as 1850 by Franz Walther, in 1870 by Nikolai I. Belobodorev, or as late as 1891 by Georg Mirwald. when you run out of higher rows from the 5th row or lower rows from the 1st row! The B system is so called because the note B is in the outside row. FOR THE SAKE OF COMPLETENESS - A PEEK AT B SYSTEM. This will require 3 diagrams, one for starting in each of the three different rows. Unless of course you are just using a four row, often used by French players, and still a useful very playable concept, and not so many notes to identify. or Best Offer. There can be 3 to 5 rows of vertical treble buttons. C $2,084.14. Italian reeds in both bass and treble ends of our accordions are what puts Black Diamond head and shoulders above many other Chinese-made instruments. 3882 - Gold Sparkle Fratelli Crosio Chromatic Button Accordion C System MMM 77 96. With hard case and straps. The first unisonoric accordions were built in Russia in the first half of the 1840s,[3] with chromaticism not appearing until the 1850s. Apparently one of the justifications for this is to make semitone runs easier, but in my view in any tune (except possibly some Eastern European ones where some use B system) there are more tones than semitones. But there are a lot more C players to help you in the original European countries, though B system in Eastern Europe and Russia. An approach to playing the chromatic button accordion (CBA). This Delicia-made instrument has 45 treble notes (d♯ - b3), 2 sets of treble reeds (MM) and 4 sets of bass/chord reeds. But on closer examination you can, with planning, use the hidden system inside to play just as comfortably. $3,880.00 $2,185.00. Play across the keyboard in the key of D Major. At any point you can exit to the normal system also or return to this system as long as you have sufficient rows available to do so. It is worth looking at the bright yellow buttons even if nothing else but you can come back to this full diagram later when you are ready, with no detriment. Please enjoy this easy to understand diagram below. Here to help you visualise the keyboard in a different way here is a diagram focussing on the middle 3 rows. Excalibur 96 Bass Chromatic Button Accordion Akordeon Werks(AW) Blue Polish C System. Notice how this keeps the principle of the same direction of travel for up and down as up being a right hand move for your hand and down is moving to the left as on a piano style keyboard. In this way you can tell whether it is set up in C system (C included on the outside row) or B system (B on the outside) by looking at it. From shop Harmony4Life. The thumb is sometimes necessary but more difficult to use on the inner rows as it comes in at a flat angle, not punching from above as with the other fingers. The movements are very nice to do once you get really into it. Commonly seen in Europe, the Chromatic Accordion is an instrument to be taken seriously. Piano Accordion vs. Chromatic Button Accordion Which is best, piano accordion (PA), or five row chromatic button accordion (CBA)? C $195.51 shipping. Choose between Bass/Major/Minor/7 or Counter Bass/Major/Minor configuration for the left side of the instrument. By using this site, you accept the use of cookies on your device. It is difficult to remember both forms of the "spelling" of the black notes of course. Chromatic button accordions Used Weltmeister 602 with MM reeds. It will be likely to be C system free bass, but this is far from being a hard and fast ule. Right-hand manual: Even a cursory examination of the list above should show you the beginnings of two diagonal rows which necessarily appear. As a side benefit of playing chromatic I have found that the stepping style movement can also be used particularly on upward chromatic runs on piano style keyboard, avoiding the need to use thumb movement. Chromatic button accordions, familiarly known as CBAs, have buttons on both the left and right sides. Lessons: This is very important to find someone who can help you with the button accordion, since it's not very present in the US compared to the piano accordion. £795.00. Always double-check the system when buying a chromatic accordion. You will only need three note patterns, one for starting in each row, and this will work as you start from different buttons in that row. This also makes extraordinary stretches available and different arrangements and note spacing possible even for average size hands. And also the tones an semitone rows swopping places. When you are looking for D# it takes a moment or two to realise that it is the same as the  Eb right in front of you on the first row! 4051 - Like New Black Arpeggio Chromatic Button Accordion B System LMMMH 102 120. With C system the probably more comfortable diagonal with the wrist higher than the fingers is full tones the other slightly twisted or more tucked in angle is semitones. Each row can play successive chromatic notes. Comparing the layout to the piano accordion,[2] the advantages of a chromatic button accordion are the greater range and better fingering options. In a 5 row chromatic, two additional rows repeat the first 2 rows to facilitate options in fingering. Accordion Fratelli Alessandrini Chromatic B-System 48-Bass + Hard Shell + Strap This is compared with the right hand playing without using the thumb of course. If you find this totally baffling, don't worry, proceed with the helpful more individual examples given further on here. The diagram should be self explanatory, viewing the keyboard from the right hand's position alongside the keyboard. That is how I feel it anyway and if you can identify this feeling you will know. This results to my mind in some rather uncomfortable movements to shape your major and minor keys on B system, going against the natural radiating shape of the fingers on the hands. 0 bids. For keyboard players who want to add a bit of variety to their sound, the piano accordion is a natural. Most people tend to play only 3 rows at a time, the outer ones which I will explain later. Harmony4Life. As the buttons are closer, it is also easier to reach notes that are far apart, such as two octaves apart. This is vital to agile and smooth playing in either chromatic accordion or piano accordion. Also most importantly that if you try to do a chromatic run in the C system way you will get a run of full tones, and vice versa. If you look at any major chord shape for example if you start on the bottom row with D you will have to skip a row to find F# and A to make up your D major chord while a D minor chord of D F and A involves a rather uncomfortable hand shape. Dan Lindgren, Piano Accordion vs. Chromatic Button Accordion, This can also be seen in photographs and illustrations of such accordions; Their bass keyboard does not have the characteristic angled rows of the, "Invention and Development of the Accordion", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chromatic_button_accordion&oldid=970488153, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 July 2020, at 15:57. What's special about Black Diamond Accordions? 3997 - Black Starlight Cavagnolo Chromatic Button Accordion … A chromatic button accordion is a type of button accordion where the melody-side keyboard consists of rows of buttons arranged chromatically. $3,880.00 $2,185.00. I really do not know why they do that. TONIC or KEY NOTE CHORD The main name note for the key you are in like C if you are in the key of C, G if you are in G and so on. Early accordions were bisonoric instruments resembling modern diatonic button accordions. Hohner Corona II Button Accordion Red Pearl KEY GCF STRAPS MADE IN GERMANY . It is unlikely in this example that you would use the thumb. Thumb use is slightly discouraged on chromatic treble, some of the fastest most free flowing passages are played on 2, 3, 4, and 5 only. Focus will be on the right-hand button keyboard. It is advisable however to remember which chord it is. Notice that the feeling of playing in tones is more open and feels more like playing from above the notes. Experience the freedom of a free-bass button accordion with the smallest of the series. They have three to five (rarely, some Serbian accordions have six) diagonal rows. This is a question which is often debated in newsgroups. The Hohner Chromatic Accordion has a 52-button treble button board and 36 bass/chord buttons. It is a good idea to know what the other two rows do so that you can use the same fingering in different rows to play the tunes in different keys, or so that you can continue on to a more comfortable fingering using the extra rows. A few special easy to remember technical terms are used to make this description easier. or Best Offer. It is referred to as dugmetara. Excalibur 96 Bass Chromatic Button Accordion Akordeon Werks(AW) Blue Polish C System. Obviously Free Bass feels more natural if you are already using the same systemon the right hand with a chromatic accordion.

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